Table of contents
- How to recognize wihthout marginalizing the people who are oppressed according to gender.
- Ripples / waves of feminism
- Assimilation / an anti-universality becoming a new universality – is the chameleon a metaphysically problematic (‘new universal’) being?
- What is the metaphysical / ontological nature of the metaphor and the subject? Are they instantiations of the same Platonic form?
- Crenshaw reading
- Evolutionary biology – mammals, primates, linking concepts of sex / sexual dynamics in biology with human gender
- What is Crenshaw trying to emphasize?
- General problem with the single-axis: it captures important elements of discrimination, but it is not sufficient
- Multiple axis: sex + gender + race + …
- At a unique position: black women are uniquely discriminated against. It’s not about simply adding identities, but about unique intersections which are more than the sum of their parts.
- Testimony on womens’ pain is often not taken seriously, especially Black womens’ pain
Discrimination along A:
Discrimination along B:
Discrimination against A or B:
Discrimination uniquely at A and B:
Waves of feminism
- ‘First movement’: 1848 - 1920, suffrage
- The idea of ‘waves’ coined during the ‘second wave’
- Focus of the ‘third wave’, 1991 - now: intersectionality
- Knowledge and ignorance from the perspective of feminism.
- Two questions for Haraway
- The metaphor of vision: what is the metaphor of vision doing in the text?
- What is the problem of objectivity for feminism / feminist epistemology and philosophy of science?
- Surveillance and the male gaze, a perversion / false standing for universality
- The view from nowhere, which transcends location, particularity, identity.
- You will always have views from somewhere, based on embodiment.
- Problem of objectivity: how can you have objective, situated knowledge?
- Alcoff, epistemologies of ignorance
- Lorraine Code, epistemic knowers are not constant. Situated knowledge.
- Sandra Harding, group identities influence what knowledge you have and your ignorance.
- Charles Mills,
- Also, Horkheimer
- Ignorance epistemology is always associated with a “rational” system of judgement
- Our very conception of truth can be itself ignorant, in Horkheimer’s case, failing to be sociologically reflexive, that is, accounting for its conditions of (re)production.
- Yet the notion of critical reason is still very dubious… and possibly reproduces instrumental reason’s logic.
- Concern: “my feminism will be intersectional” has become a tired cliche
- Whose intersection(s)?
- Transnational feminism: race and colonization
- Are you committed to decolonizing if you are committed to intersectional feminism?
- Intersectionality not about individuals but about social axes / dimensions
- Friendship? Care? Friendship throughotu colonialism? Is there a burden/strain of friendship?
- Is friendship reciprocal?
- “Affectively saturated” story – the main feeling about the stories we tell of intersectionality is of black feminism vs. the critic, the affect of defensiveness
- Does Nash end up reproducing what she criticizes?
- Political libido
- the role of affect in feminist theory, what it means to theorize
- Nash: Black feminists have adopted a vision of intersectionality which is not true to Black feminism
- Black feminism should not follow a capitalist logic of property accumulation (‘this is mine, this is my territory, this is my land’) – think about and be more critical about the concerns around ‘appropriation’, etc.
- Is transnational feminism about intersectionality?
- Decolonization vs intersectionality
- Post-feminism: the idea that feminism is no longer necessary, that we have achieved equality
- Post-colonialism: understanding the world after colonialism, after the end of colonialism. Imperialism after imperialism.
- Settler colonialism.
What is ideal theory?
- Full compliance (people tend to agree and enact justice) vs partial compliance
- Utopian vs realistic (how many factual constraints are there)
- End-state vs transitional
- Ideal vs non-ideal
- John Rawls, Theory of Justice
- Khader – arguing against using ideal theory to critique non-Western culture
- Ideal theory needs to be thin as opposed to thick